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< VOLUME 49, No.2 >

< VOLUME 49, No.2 >

Nakane Makoto. Takayuki Namae as a Japanese Social Worker and His Theory of Day Nursery Project : Focusing on Family Reform and Slum Clearance.
Research on Early Childhood Care and Education in Japan, 2011, 49(2), 122-134.

The purpose of this paper is to analyze and consider the Japanese social worker, Takayuki Namae’s (1867-1957), theory of the day nursery project, especially focusing on family reform and slum clearance. His papers and books between 1909-1923 were reviewed by this author. The results reveal that there was of way of thinking about family reform and slum clearance as side jobs of the day nursery. The author considered actual conditions of family reform and slum clearance by day nursery teachers. In conclusion family reform and slum clearance background in the day nursery project of The Reformatory Measures and Moral Direction Relief Policy was training projects for ‘good subject’ by means of direction of mothers and encouragement of savings and employment agency activities etc.

Keywords: Takayuki Namae, The Reformatory Measures and Moral Direction Relief Policy, Day Nursery Project, family reform, slum clearance
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Ohno Ayumi, Nanakida Atsushi. Research on Preschool Class in Sweden : from Viewpoints of the “schoolification” Problem and Lifelong-Learning Approach.
Research on Early Childhood Care and Education in Japan, 2011, 49(2), 135-145.

The purpose of this paper is to find the problem to a present “schoolification” discussion in Sweden considering the formation of the phenomenon that has denoted the decreased pressure on primary school approaches in early childhood pedagogy. The method focused on the form of preschool class activity, set up along with the complete integration of childcare and the school education system. It was examined from the statistical data and through the observation of preschool classes. In addition, the definition of prechool class according to the country, was analyzed from the content of the booklet that the national school agency published. In Sweden, the situation seems different from the “schoolification” phenomenon of other countries. The Swedish preschool class approach is child-centered and holistic, and attempts to standardize the “lifelong learning” education.

Keywords: schoolification, preschool class, lifelong learning, Sweden
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Maki Ryouta, Yuzawa Mashamichi. Functions of Teasing in 5-year-old Children’s Play.
Research on Early Childhood Care and Education in Japan, 2011, 49(2), 146-156.

Teasing is an aggressive behavior accompanied by playful gestures that imply that the behavior is a joke. The present paper reports an observation study for 5-year-old children during play that examined functions of teasing in their play. Teasing events observed during play were categorized in terms of whether or not there was a shared framework of play and whether or not a teaser was an initiator or a respondent. Seven different contexts were found in which teasing occurred with different functions: a trigger to friends’ reactions, the formation of play-framework, entering a play group, an expression of acceptance, creation of fun, pointing out fun, and unfolding of play. Teasing, which usually has a negative impression on the teachers, plays an important role in establishing peer relationships and making children’s play lively.

Keywords: teasing, aggressive behavior, play, 5-year-olds, observation study
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Iwata Keiko. Forming Peer Relationships in Kindergarten : From “assurance” Relationships to “general trust” Relationships.
Research on Early Childhood Care and Education in Japan, 2011, 49(2), 157-167.

In this study, children’s peer relationships in kindergarten were studied as part of the process of group formation, not as acquisition of individual social skills. The study aimed to gain a perspective on the meaning of “exclusion” and “conflict” among children. The results of this case study on the communication between children during free play are explained. First, children formed small groups with a certain shared feature, developing “assurance” relationships. At the same time, this assurance relationship group made “exclusion” if a member did not share the certain similar feature. However, this “assurance” boundary was not rigid. They gauged various relational possibilities through conflict and tried to understand the other through this process. The relationships that were a result of this process were called “general trust” relationships.

Keywords: peer, group, assurance, general trust, conflict
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Yabe Tomoko. Sharing Process of Musical Expression in Children’s Play.
Research on Early Childhood Care and Education in Japan, 2011, 49(2), 168-176.

This study focuses on the generation and the sharing process of musical expression in play by children. Based on observation in a 4-year-old public kindergarten class, the interaction of inner, outer and expressive worlds of children is studied, and three stages are derived. 1. In the relationship with friends, children tend to convey their feelings and images to others and produce new expressions. 2. Musical expression generated in play is copied by friends, then image and feelings are shared. 3. As musical expression synchronized by physical motion is repeated several times, it becomes rhythmic and melodic, and generates a new play with musical communication. The important factor in the three stages is the relationship with friends. It is essential for musical expression to be generated and developed when children are playing.

Keywords: Musical Expression, Play, Children, interaction of inner outer and expression world
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Yodogawa Yumi. Dialogue Change among 2-3-Year-Olds during Nursery School Lunch Time : Focusing on Address, Subjects, and the Evaluations of Subjects of “confirmation” Episodes.
Research on Early Childhood Care and Education in Japan, 2011, 49(2), 177-188.

This study aimed to elucidate changes in the dialogues among 2-3-year-old children during lunch at a nursery school. A 2-year-old class was participatory observed for 6 months. The episodes of “confirmation” were analyzed in terms of the addresses of utterances, subjects, and evaluative contents. As the study progressed, the number of episodes in which children received approving reactions from a specific child decreased and the number of episodes in which children received confirmatory reactions to explanations of how to hold a fork increased. The topics under discussion became more concrete, and more focused on the objects in sight. Despite the differences among subjects, sequential dyadic dialogues generally expanded to sequential triadic dialogues in terms of the addresses of utterances. Children were also more likely to share and respond to evaluation regarding other children over the course of the study.

Keywords: 2 – 3 -year-old children, peer dialogue, address, subject, qualitative analysis
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Nagase Yumiko, Kuramochi Kiyomi. The Relationship between “daily work” and “play” in the Kindergarten for preschoolers : Focusing on the “clean-up” scene.
Research on Early Childhood Care and Education in Japan, 2011, 49(2), 189-199.

It is important for children to acquire the basics of the way of life. “Clean-up” is one of the important habits of everyday life in the kindergarten. This study examined the change of the “clean-up” activity during the first semester and attempted to investigate the relationship between “clean-up” activity and “play” scene for children. The subjects were 28 preschoolers belonging to the 3-year-old class. They were observed from April to July (18 days in all). The class teacher of the subjects was interviewed. In July, most of the children were able to clean up their room when the teacher told them it was clean-up time. There were two factors which made the children shift smoothly from the play to “clean-up”. Firstly, they ended their play with satisfaction in their “clean-up”. Secondly, they found pleasure in the “clean-up” activity.

Keywords: clean up scene, play scene, kindergarten, children’s’ living, 3-years old children
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Kiso Yoko. The Process of Nursery School Teachers’ Perception of Difficulties in Relationship to Parents of Children with Special Needs : A Qualitative Analysis of Narratives of Teachers.
Research on Early Childhood Care and Education in Japan, 2011, 49(2), 200-211.

The purpose of the current study was to examine the process of nursery school teachers’ perception of difficulties in relationship to parents of children with special needs. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with five public nursery school teachers. Data was analyzed using the Modified Grounded Theory Approach. The findings suggest that there were three features in the process of nursery school teachers’ perception of difficulties. First, the teachers in the current study consistently have “a base of belief for children” when teachers were involved with parents. The second was a teacher’s approach to parents came to “fitting of parents’ thought” from “seeking an understanding for children” through “A conflict of thought between parents and teachers”. However, the third feature suggests that teachers often struggled between “a base belief for children” and “fitting of parents’ thought.”

Keywords: children with special needs, nursery school teachers, perceptions of difficulties, relationship between parents and teachers, qualitative research
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Morino Miwo, Iimure Etsuko, Hamazaki Takashi, Okamoto Kaori, Yoshida Mina. A Longitudinal Study of Factors Influencing Preschool Teacher-Efficacy in Junior College Students : Concerning Their Experiences of Building and Losing Confidence.
Research on Early Childhood Care and Education in Japan, 2011, 49(2), 212-223.

The aims of this study were to examine the gradual change of preschool teacher-efficacy (PTE) and to explore factors influencing the efficacy through a longitudinal study. Two hundred seventy-nine junior college students majoring in early-childhood care and education (144 first-year and 135 second-year students) were asked to fill out questionnaires on a PTE scale several times over the course of their training. The students were also asked to describe their experiences of building and losing confidence, which were expected to have an influence on PTE. The results showed that PTE was affected by the number and content of those experiences. This study suggested that there was a qualitative change of PTE from “ideal efficacy” to “realistic efficacy” over the course of their training.

Keywords: preschool teacher-efficacy(PTE), experience of building confidence, experience of losing confidence, junior college students majoring in early-childhood care and education, longitudinal study
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Shinagawa Hiromi. The Role of Interpreters, and Concerns Regarding Multicultural Childcare : Focusing on Japanese-Brazilian Children.
Research on Early Childhood Care and Education in Japan, 2011, 49(2), 224-235.

Based on questionnaires given to care-givers, and interviews with their supervisors, this study reviewed the role of interpreters in nursery schools which have many Japanese-Brazilian children. We found that the interpreters greatly contribute to the effectiveness of communication between the care-givers and the children and parents, and to extending mindful daily care. The interpreters also play a role in providing the children with a ‘home culture’ atmosphere in the nursery school. However, the care-givers were found to have varying levels of concern about the children’s home culture, and some thought they did not always have to pay attention to it. Some nursery schools have permanent interpreters, and some only temporary, interpreters; but in either case their role is critical, and we are concerned that visiting interpreters may not be adequately involved owing to time constraints.

Keywords: Multicultural childcare, Japanese-Brazilian children, interpreters, communication
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