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< VOLUME 50, No.2 >

< VOLUME 50, No.2 >

Yamamoto Toshiko. Relation between Gardening Experience and Parent Attitudes in Childhood : Students and Mothers of Preschool Children.
Research on Early Childhood Care and Education in Japan, 2012, 50(2), 108-115.

The purpose of this study is to analyze the relation between gardening experience and parent attitudes in childhood (preschool to lower grades of elementary school) using a questionnaire survey of 264 students, all women, of five universities in May 2008 and of 227 mothers of kindergarten and nursery-aged children in Dec. 2008. Students and infants’ mothers with much gardening experience were accepted by their parents. They also visited art museums and participated in nature observations as children. Using cluster analysis, the parents were classified into three groups according to their attitudes. The groups were “Acceptance”, “Interference”, and “Neither acceptance nor interference”. In all groups, subjects with much gardening experience participated in social education more than those with less gardening experience. The tendency was especially remarkable in the “Acceptance” group. Results show that parents’ opinions about child education influence their children’s gardening experience.

Keywords: childhood, gardening experience, parent attitudes
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Kiso Yoko. The Change Process of Nursery School Teachers’ Perceptions of Difficulties in Caring of Children with Special Needs.
Research on Early Childhood Care and Education in Japan, 2012, 50(2), 116-128.

The purpose of the current study was to examine the change process of nursery school teacher’ caring, focusing on the process of their perceptions of difficulties in relationship to children with special needs. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with five public nursery school teachers. Data was analyzed using the Modified Grounded Theory Approach. Our findings suggested the process that the teachers’ perceptions of difficulties were accumulated by the children’s problem, but the children’s problem were reduced when the teachers fit their approach into children, and the teachers’ perceptions of difficulties were reduced. In order to fit teachers’ approach into children, it is important to understand the meanings of children’s behavioral problems. Teachers should care on a basis of dynamism between each child and the group. In addition, teachers felt guilt for having perceptions of difficulties.

Keywords: Children with special needs, Nursery school teachers, Perceptions of difficulties, Changing process, Qualitative research
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Zhang Jing, Kuramochi Kiyomi. Involvement of Chinese Child Care Workers in Meal Time : In Comparison with Japanese Child Care Workers.
Research on Early Childhood Care and Education in Japan, 2012, 50(2), 129-140.

Nowadays, in China, preschoolers eat meals three times a day in group nursing, and group nursing has much to contribute to eating. The purpose of this study is to examine the involvement of Chinese child care workers in mealtime in comparison with Japanese child care workers. We observed the child-care workers’ behavior in the lunch time setting of three years classes in both China and Japan, and analyzed them. In Japanese mealtime, the child care workers communicated with children positively and children ate in a pleasant atmosphere. In Chinese mealtime, child care workers taught how to eat and required children to eat without talking with peers. We discussed about the challenges of Chinese early childhood education based on now and the future in China.

Keywords: early childhood education, dietary education, comparative study of China and Japan, eating scene, group nursing
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Suzuki Yuko. The Function and Role of Physical Imitation among Young Children Being Imitated.
Research on Early Childhood Care and Education in Japan, 2012, 50(2), 141-153.

With the view that imitation among young children is a form of physical interaction, this paper focuses on “children who are imitated” and closely studies the cases based on anecdotes collected. As a result, it was found that the followings were true among children who being were imitated by others. i) They started to interact with others. ii) They became aware of the presence and ideas of others. iii) They became aware of the intentions behind their actions. iv) They became aware of their action and interacted more with others. v) Being acknowledged of one’s self, they started to take positive actions toward others. In all cases, it was observed that being imitated lead to various interctions and helped children deepen one’s self-understanding through the understanding of others.

Keywords: children who are imitated by others, physical communication, interaction, self-understanding, other-understanding
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Yoshimura Kaori. The Quality of Reflections Represented by a Care-Taker in Narrative.
Research on Early Childhood Care and Education in Japan, 2012, 50(2), 154-164.

The purpose of this study was to explore how a care-taker reflected the background of the scenes in her care practices. In this study, the research holds these questions : 1) What kind of word did a care-taker use to narrate her practices? 2) How did a care-taker describe the background of the scenes in her practices? The results suggested that, 1) The care-taker narrated her practices not by jargons but by her own words 2) The care-taker was conscious of her practices included the background in her narrating 3) The difference was found between reflections expressed by narrative and that by written in terms of quality. This study has concluded that narrative has possibilities that could draw out reflections on what made herself be aware of the background of the scenes.

Keywords: Reflection, Narrative, Background of the scene, Words by herself
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Namiki Mariko. Effects on Infants’ Words of Sound by the Constructing of Reading and Childcare Persons’ Actions and Words of Sound in the Kindergarten.
Research on Early Childhood Care and Education in Japan, 2012, 50(2), 165-179.

The purpose of this research is the effects on infants’ words of sound by the constructing of reading and childcare persons’ actions and words of sound from the analysis of repeated reading picture-hooks to entering age at the class in the kindergarten. The results were as follows : (1)Importance of the constructing of reading picture-books for infants’ stability of mind. (2)Importance of childcare persons’ words of sound about feelings of characters and scenes of pictures and how to take it among the infants’ image. (3)Importance of the information of infants’ discovery and play after reading picture-books.

Keywords: childcare persons’ actions, childcare persons’ words of sound, infants’ words of sound, entering age at the class in the kindergarten, constructing of reading picture-books
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Kumagai Setsuko. An Experimental Therapeutic Method for Children of Domestic Violence : Through Playing Treatment in a Safe Space and Time Which is Intentionally Designed.
Research on Early Childhood Care and Education in Japan, 2012, 50(2), 181-191.

This paper is written on the basis of the experimental treatment for mothers and children who suffer from domestic violence. Generally it is hard for mothers and children suffering from domestic violence to keep a safe space and time. The mother and child relationship have difficulties as they have obstacles like abnormal physical and mental development. The auther provides a safe space and time to mothers and children who suffered from domestic violence and tried to give them some playing treatment with several effective results during the playing treatment. In conclusion it can be said that the playing treatment with respite service would be effective for those who suffered from domestic violence.

Keywords: place of safe safety, change playing, from social work point
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Honma Eiji. The Actual Situation of the Consciousness of the Childcare Staff and the Quality of the Childcare : Through the Questionnaire Survey to the Childcare Staff in City A.
Research on Early Childhood Care and Education in Japan, 2012, 50(2), 192-201.

Despite the needs for improvement of quality in childcare demanded through changing systems, it has not been examined on how nursery teachers perceive the quality of childcare. This study shed light on how nursery teachers working in childcare centers perceive the about the quality of childcare with conducting questionnaire surveys. As a result, their perception of the quality of childcare is associated with 7 factors ; “contents and curriculum”, “relationships with local communities”, “competences and qualities of nursery teachers”, “condition of children and their parents guardidans”, “number of the staff”, “number of children”, “training of nursery teachers and cooperative relationships among the staff members”. In addition, “increase in children with special needs” influences standards for the judgment of childcare quality by nursery teachers. Also, it was found that 60% of nursery teachers feel worried about the quality of childcare with which they are involved.

Keywords: Quality of childcare, Nursery teacher, Component of quality of childcare, Investigation of actual conditions of day – nursery teachers
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Kousokabe Taku. The Effects of a Rapidly Declining Birthrate on the Development of the Municipal Nursery School and the Kindergarten Teacher.
Research on Early Childhood Care and Education in Japan, 2012, 50(2), 202-215.

In this study, we clarify the development and characteristics of nursery school and kindergarten teachers in small, local governments with a rapid progression of low birthrates and depopulation. In addition, we suggest a new viewpoint for the current existence of nursery school and kindergarten teachers hired by local city governments that are experiencing population reductions. In concrete terms, we conducted a semi-structured interview for skilled nursery school and kindergarten teachers and analyzed it using GTA. The analysis suggests that in the course of forming an identity among the teachers, working in facilities that are different sizes, due to population variations caused by recent low birthrates, creates both advantages and disadvantages. Also, through these challenges, nursery school and kindergarten teachers develop new ideas as they are transferred to different locations (transfer cycle), build concepts of their ideal teaching practices, and struggle with teaching problems (practice cycle). During transfer and practice cycles, the teachers develop personal relationships with other teachers (forming a childcare practice community) instead of with an official organization, such as a nursing school or workshop, and these teachers deal with their hardships. We presented possible training programs for nursery school and kindergarten teachers and presented support systems that accommodate facility sizes.

Keywords: forming a childcare practice community, transfer, low birthrates, GTA
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Saito Taeko. The Connection between Peer Relationships and Objects in 1-2 years old : A Focus on the Action of being Interested in a Common Objects with the Peer.
Research on Early Childhood Care and Education in Japan, 2012, 50(2), 96-107.

This study explores the connection between peer relationships and objects in the 1-2 years old child, with focus on action of being interested in a common object with the peer. The author observed the play scene with the peer about once a month for a year in the child care room. Using observations and detailed analyses, I found: 1) The concern for “objects that the peer is using” is high in 1-2 years old. : 2) The concern for “objects that the peer is using” ties to peer relationships in 1-2 years. : 3) The peer relationship is tied in because it has the same objects with the peer, and shares the same place with the peer.

Keywords: peer relationship, 1 – 2 years old, objects, play, observation
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